- The Independent suggests that potentially flammable cladding was mounted on London's Grenfell Tower so as to make it look nicer for richer neighbours. If the lives of the poor were put at risk of burning to make richer neighbours happy ... Wow.
- Adam Rogers at Wired describes the many complexities regarding fighting high-rise fires and evacuating their inhabitants.
- CBC suggests that local building codes in Canada are sufficiently stringent to prevent a repetition of the Grenfell Tower tragedy here. One hopes.
- blogTO reported that York University plans on opening a satellite campus in York Region's Markham. This is a first.
- Dangerous Minds notes a new, posthumous release from Suidide's Alan Vega.
- The Dragon's Gaze links to a paper considering the detectability of Niven ringworlds around pulsars. (Maybe.)
- The Everyday Sociology Blog considers burnout among sociology students, and suggests that engagement with issues is key to overcoming it.
- The Great Grey Bridge's Philip Turner photoblogs his recent Rhode Island vacation.
- Joe. My. God. reports on the arrest of a Christian activist protesting outside of the Pulse memorial in Orlando.
- The LRB Blog shares considerable concern that the Democratic Unionists of Northern Ireland are now national powermakers.
- Spacing Toronto shares the ambitious plan of Buenos Aires to make the city better for cyclists, pedestrians, and mass transit
- Transit Toronto notes that starting Friday, Metrolinx will co-sponsor $C25 return tickets to Niagara from Toronto.
- Centauri Dreams notes new studies suggesting the flares of red dwarf stars damage potentially habitable planets.
- The Crux notes that the wild apple is going extinct.
- D-Brief notes that recent high winds in Europe helped push energy prices there to negative territory.
- The Frailest Thing considers Neil Postman's thoughts on the intersection of mass media and childhood.
- Inkfish argues in favour of accidental wetlands in urban areas.
- Language Log looks at the trope of the repeated character in some recent Chinese advertising.
- The LRB Blog considers the costs, environmental and otherwise, to the United States' leaving the Paris climate agreement.
- Marginal Revolution wonders what assumptions about deep history the news of Homo sapiens' longer history overturn.
- The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer notes that, in the area of energy costs, mid-20th century Uruguay was worse off than New Zealand.
- The Russian Demographics Blog looks at polling on Russian opinions about the Russian Far East and its future.
- Yorkshire Ranter Alex Harrowell is skeptical about Jeremy Paxman's claims about privacy in modern journalism.
- D-Brief notes the first-ever use of Einsteinian gravitational bending to examine the mass of a star.
- Language Log announces the start of an investigation into the evolving rhetoric of Donald Trump. Something is up.
- The LRB Blog reports from Tuareg Agadez in Niger, about rebellions and migrant-smuggling.
- Marginal Revolution wonders what is the rationale for the extreme cut-off imposed on Qatar.
- Maximos62 wonders about the impact of Indonesia's fires on not just wildlife but indigenous peoples.
- Personal Reflections notes the irrelevance of the United States' withdrawal from Paris, at least from an Australian position.
- Savage Minds points to a new anthropology podcast.
- Window on Eurasia
- Yahoo News shares the story of a cat that visited every national park in the United States, with photos.
- CBC's Mike Crawley takes a look at the impact of the Ontario $15 minimum wage, finding it should have little effect on the economy at large.
- In The Globe and Mail, Tony Keller suggests that Donald Trump's actions do a great job of promoting China as a responsible superpower.
- CBC notes research suggesting that global warming will make the heat island effect in cities much worse.
- It is easy, editor David Shribman of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette writes in The Globe and Mail, to mistake Pittsburgh for Paris.
- The Toronto Star notes Ariana Grande's surprise visit to her fans in hospital before tomorrow benefit concert.
- The Atlantic reports on the problems of post-Communist gentrification in Moscow.
- The Georgia Straight shares one Vancouver artist's goodbye to her adopted city, beloved but now too expensive.
- Centauri Dreams remembers Ben Finney, this time from the angle of a man with an interest in space colonization.
- Crooked Timber wonders what will happen to the Anglo-American tradition of liberalism.
- Dangerous Minds imagines the VHS tapes of Logan and Stranger Things.
- Far Outliers notes the Soviet twist on Siberian exile.
- Inkfish notes that Detroit is unique among cities in being a good place for bumblebees.
- Marginal Revolution wonders if modern Germany really is a laboratory for innovative politics.
- The NYRB Daily looks at José Maria de Eça de Queirós, the "Proust of Portugal".
- Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw updates his readers on his writing projects.
- Torontoist reports on how Avi Lewis and Cheri DiNovo have advocated for the NDP's Leap Manifesto.
- Anthropology.net reports on new evidence that Homo naledi may have used tools, buried their dead, and lived alongside Homo sapiens.
- Centauri Dreams remembers an abortive solar sail mission to Halley's Comet.
- Dangerous Minds shares photos of the "Apache" dancers of France.
- Cody Delistraty writes about Swedish futurist Anders Sandberg and his efforts to plan for humanity's future.
- At the Everyday Sociology Blog, Karen Sternheimer talks about her day as a sociologist.
- Joe. My. God. notes the good news that normal young HIV patients can now expect near-normal life expectancies.
- Language Hat looks at a recent surge of interest in Italian dialects.
- Language Log looks at the phenomenon of East Asians taking English-language names.
- The LRB Blog considers the dynamics of the United Kingdom's own UDI.
- Marginal Revolution looks at the existential issues of a growing Kinshasa still disconnected from the wider world.
- Steve Munro notes that Metrolinx will now buy vehicles from France's Alstom.
- The New APPS Blog uses Foucault to look at the "thanatopolitics" of the Republicans.
- The NYRB Daily looks at Trump's constitutional crisis.
- Out There considers the issues surrounding the detection of an alien civilization less advanced than ours.
- The Planetary Society Blog looks at the United States' planetary science exploration budget.
- The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer looks at Argentina's underrated reputation as a destination for foreign investment.
- Progressive Download shares some thinking about sexual orientation in the context of evolution.
- Peter Rukavina looks at the success of wind energy generation on the Island.
- Understanding Society takes a look at the dynamics of Rome.
- Window on Eurasia shares a lunatic Russian scheme for a partition of eastern Europe between Russia and Germany.
NOW Toronto's Susan G. Cole reports on An Honest Farewell, this weekend's ongoing festivities surrounding the closing of Honest Ed's. I really do like this urban initiative, and I have been and will be taking part in it: I went to the community market in the old Bad Boys space just now, and tomorrow morning I will be doing the art maze. (Photos, among other things, will be coming from me.)
AN HONEST FAREWELL a festival celebrating inclusiveness, community and social innovation, at Honest Ed's (581 Bloor West), Thursday to Sunday (February 23 to 26). $16.50 for some events. Buy tickets and/or register at torontoforeveryone.com.
We know it's coming. We might even admit that it's about time. But many of us are dreading it: that moment when Honest Ed's goes down. Not the store – that happened last year – but the building, that crazy edifice festooned with neon that flashed garishly at the corner of Bloor and Bathurst.
But the Centre for Social Innovation is turning this sad moment in Toronto history into an opportunity. An Honest Farewell, their multi-day culture fest, celebrates the past, present and future with the accent on building a city that is joyously inclusive.
The fact that I'm talking to co-producers Hima Batavia and Negin Sairafi just days after U.S. President Trump has announced his travel ban on people from seven Muslim-majority countries lends the project a new urgency. T.O. is always promoting its diversity, but with xenophobes taking over below the 49th parallel, protecting that inclusiveness takes on new meaning.
"My passport says Iran," explains Sairafi, angered by the confusion the executive order has created. "So I can't travel to the States. Then again, maybe I can. It's a privilege to be able to travel and to have a Canadian passport, but it's still ironic that I'm working on a project like this and having to face the reality of what people are going through around the world. It makes our work – and especially what we do after this – so much more important."
When Sairafi mentions what comes after An Honest Farewell, she's referring to the fact that the fest says goodbye to an iconic edifice but also launches CSI's Toronto For Everyone (TO4E) campaign to build a city committed to inclusiveness.
But the focus for four days beginning February 23 is a cultural blitz that transforms the one-time bargain emporium into an arts extravaganza and venue for public debate on the city's future.
Gary Mason wrote Thursday from Victoria for The Globe and Mail about the Toronto real estate crisis, contrasting the belated responses of Toronto and Ontario unfavourably to those of his province of residence.
Of all the political U-turns B.C. Premier Christy Clark has undertaken in power, perhaps none was as jarring and unexpected as the one she performed on housing.
For most of 2015, and at least half of the following year, the Premier refused to do anything about rapidly escalating house prices in Metro Vancouver. She maintained that bringing in measures to cool the market might hurt the equity in people’s homes. She denied foreign investors had much to do with the fierce escalation in costs, relying on the faulty, self-serving data from a real-estate industry that wanted the sticker-shock insanity to continue.
And there was also the not-insignificant fact that the B.C. treasury was getting fattened on the provincial tax that exists on home sales – easy money that can become like crack to a government.
But then Ms. Clark and her cabinet came to an uncomfortable realization: The growing public outrage over the fact that the middle-class dreams of owning a home were evaporating by the day for many and might cost the government re-election. So the Premier did what she vowed she wouldn’t and brought in a 15-per-cent foreign buyer’s tax that did precisely what it was intended to – put the brakes on the absurd, and immoral, goings-on in the real estate industry.
Unfortunately, by the time she did, it was too late for thousands.
- At Antipope, Charlie Stross wonders--among other things--what the Trump Administration is getting done behind its public scandals.
- blogTO notes a protest in Toronto aiming to get the HBC to drop Ivanka Trump's line of fashion.
- Dangerous Minds reflects on a Talking Heads video compilation from the 1980s.
- Lawyers, Guns and Money reflects on a murderous attack against Indian immigrants in Kansas.
- The LRB Blog looks at "post-Internet art".
- Lovesick Cyborg notes an attack by a suicide robot against a Saudi warship.
- Strange Maps links to a map of corruption reports in France.
- Torontoist reports on Winter Stations.
- Understanding Society engages in a sociological examination of American polarization, tracing it to divides in race and income.
- The Volokh Conspiracy notes the many good reasons behind the reluctance of cities around the world to host the Olympics.
- Window on Eurasia notes that where the Ingush have mourned their deportation under Stalin the unfree Chechens have not, reports that Latvians report their willingness to fight for their country, looks at what the spouses of the presidents of post-Soviet states are doing, and notes the widespread opposition in Belarus to paying a tax on "vagrancy."
- Arnold Zwicky looks at the linguistic markers of the British class system.
The National Post hosts Theophilos Argitis' Bloomberg News article looking at the causes of the housing price boom and speculating about ways to end it without wrecking the wider economy.
Prices in Canada’s largest city surged more than 20 per cent over the past year, the fastest pace in three decades, data released last week show. Some of the city’s neighbouring towns are posting even bigger gains.
It’s become a matter of considerable alarm. Stability is one concern: if the market tumbles, so will Canada’s economy. Pricier real estate also drives away less-affluent, younger people and boosts the cost of doing business, eroding competitiveness.
“I don’t think anybody is cheering,” said Doug Porter, the Toronto-based chief economist of Bank of Montreal, who used the dreaded “bubble” word last week to describe the market. “I don’t see who benefits other than real estate agents. It’s trapped wealth.”
So, what’s driving the boom? The housing industry — builders and brokers — claim lack of supply is the main culprit. Others, Porter included, see demand as the problem. Lately, evidence is mounting that speculation is behind the jump.
The Toronto Star carries May Warren's article for Metro noting an upcoming gallery showing in Mississauga celebrating the life of that city's long-time mayor Hazel McCallion. I may well go to Mississauga for this!
She has inspired paintings, crayon drawings, even a Mississauga version of the Mona Lisa.
Now former Mississauga mayor Hazel McCallion is getting her very own art exhibit to show off these tributes.
Stuart Keeler, curator and manager of museums for Mississauga, said the city is looking for submissions from the public and doesn’t think they will be hard to find.
“Sometimes monthly, we get phone calls of, ‘I have a painting of Hazel,’ ” he said. “This is a common occurrence.”
They’ve already received 25 works of art for the spring show and there’s no cap on how many they’ll take.
At the National Post, Garry Marr argues, on the basis of the attractiveness of Canada as a destination and the push for all Canadians to acquire property, that the Canadian real estate boom is actually sustainable.
The mayor of Caledon, a town of about 60,000 northwest of Toronto, says government can try all it wants, but the dream of owning a home will persevere.
Allan Thompson should know. His town, like many others that ring around Ontario’s capital, has become a launching site for new communities as people priced out of the core look to the suburbs (or what was once rural) for slightly cheaper housing.
An average new single-family detached home in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) was $1,264,604 in 2016, according to the Building Industry and Land Development Association. But housing prices range from an average of $666,220 for a semi-detached home in Durham, northeast of Toronto, to $1.8 million for a detached home just north of the city.
“I remember I had this neighbour who was Portuguese,” said Thompson, who was a Caledon councillor for 11 years before becoming mayor two years ago. “He said to me, ‘For 20 generations back in Portugal, we all lived and rented houses in town. We had our sheep and our goats and our cattle.’ He said to me, ‘I was the first one ever to have a home.'”
That dream of home ownership is central to the escalating prices in Canada’s housing market, especially in larger cities such as Toronto where immigrants tend to settle.
Sarah Yellin at Spacing Toronto writes about an issue with the sharing economy that I literally had not imagined.
What happens when fare collectors start to become wise to over-turnstile Bunz trade activity occurring at Ossington subway station? The station’s central location made it a popular site for trades but eventually, it became too busy, with instances of trades began getting mixed up; for example, the wrong pair of shoes being traded for the wrong gift card, owned by the wrong Bunz! That’s the joke cracked by Eli Klein, one of the key forces behind the ubiquitous phenomenon that is Bunz Trading Zone, when describing what sparked the idea to create designated “trading zones” in public spaces around the city.
Through data gathered by the app, it is estimated that Bunz users are completing up to 700 trades per day, which means a minimum of 1400 people meeting in public spaces to trade and interact. It became clear that designated public spaces in accessible locations needed to be formalized within the Bunz network, and generated an opportunity for the Bunz community to interact with the local business community in order to foster the platform’s development and improve the quality of community interactions. Klein sees the trading zones as not only important to improving the safety of trades, but as vital to building the community network and fostering interaction between Bunz. He envisions the spaces as encouraging a prolonged interaction between Bunz, maybe over a cup of coffee, in the hopes of strengthening social ties between strangers. He believes that the right environment can generate this, and redefine the context of the relationship between traders.
The popularization of platforms such as Bunz has enabled the rise of an alternative consumerist economy, based on trade, exchange, and interpersonal relationships, rather than traditional capitalist means of acquiring goods and services. Taking this concept to the extreme is Toronto’s Really Really Free Market, which operates once a month out of Campbell Avenue Park. While the concept of the Really Really Free Market did not originate in Toronto, the local chapter has been running for over four years. Powered by volunteers with an aim of creating a “community-space for sharing,” the market rejects not only the traditional buy-sell model but bartering and trading, creating a currency-free space with no boundaries to entry.
As explained by the event’s organizers, the market’s target demographic is people who can normally afford to buy goods but instead, providing them with an alternative mechanism for acquisition, all while reducing carbon emissions and contributing to the circular economy. This being said, the market encourages participation from all members of the community, regardless of socio-economic status. Since the project’s inception, the market has received a tremendous amount of public support, attracting visitors from all around the city. Participation in the market’s events has created friendships between those who partake regularly, forming a community network.
- blogTO reports on the history of Toronto's Wellington Street.
- Dangerous Minds introduces me to the grim American gothic that is Wisconsin Death Trip. What happened to Black River Falls in the 1890s?
- The Dragon's Gaze links to hypotheses about KIC 8462852, one suggesting KIC 8462852 has four exoplanets, another talking about a planet's disintegration.
- The Dragon's Tales links to a paper modeling the mantles of icy moons.
- Lawyers, Guns and Money looks at small city NIMBYism in the Oregon city of Eugene.
- The LRB Blog reports on toxically racist misogyny directed towards Labour's Diane Abbott by Tory minister David Davis, "misogynoir" as it is called.
- Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw reports on the elections in Indonesia, a country increasingly important to Australia.
- Peter Rukavina describes how the builders of his various indie phones, promising in their own rights, keep dropping them.
- The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer is optimistic that NAFTA will survive mostly as is.
- The Volokh Conspiracy examines the ruling against Trump's immigration order on the grounds that its planners explicitly designed it as an anti-Muslim ban.
- Window on Eurasia suggests that the treaty-based federalism of Tatarstan within Russia is increasingly unpopular with many wanting a more centralized country.
MacLean's carries Alexandra Posadzki's Canadian Press article looking at how high housing prices are driving Canadians out of major cities for markets with lower prices.
Julien Simon and his wife were living happily in their condo in the Vancouver suburb of Burnaby when life intervened last year in the form of a baby on the way.
The couple — he’s an Internet marketer, she’s an environmental engineer — couldn’t see themselves living in a shoebox crammed full of baby stuff, so they pulled up stakes, put their condo up for sale and moved about four hours away to Kamloops, B.C., where they bought a four-bedroom house for nearly the same price.
“In Vancouver, this house would be in the $2 million range,” says Simon, who works from home while his wife now works for the government as a flood safety engineer.
While more detailed profiles will emerge in subsequent releases, the 2016 census data released Wednesday found that there were more than 14 million occupied private dwellings in Canada, a 5.6 per cent increase over the five-year period that ended in 2011. That growth rate, however, was significantly lower than the 7.1 per cent rate recorded five years ago.
Thanks in large part to a commensurate spike in population that was the largest in Canada, Nunavut reported the fastest dwellings growth at 13.4 per cent, followed by Alberta (9.9 per cent), Yukon (7.8 per cent) and British Columbia (6.6 per cent).
Bloomberg View's Conor Sen talks about how emerging southern US metropolis Atlanta may finally be coming into its own as a city of broader repute.
Coming so close to its first Super Bowl victory in franchise history, just as the city prepares to open two pro sports stadiums, Atlanta is reaching for a civic dream as much as an athletic one. Sports have a special significance for this Southern city; the arrival of the Falcons and the Braves in 1966, and the Hawks in 1968, represented the beginning of Atlanta's transcending its Southern roots and becoming a national city. Professional sports didn't come to North Carolina until 1988. Tennessee didn't get its first professional team until 1997. Pro sports were a way of competing in a recruitment arms race with other Southern cities, and Atlanta won.
Atlanta has embraced its growth, even defining itself as the thriving economic engine of the New South. Until the financial crisis in 2008, that meant an endless boom in suburban real estate growth and development. An apartment tower in the Buckhead business district famously sported an "Atlanta's Population Now" sign, a prideful boast celebrating gaudy metrics that you might expect to see at a tech startup.
Atlanta is a proud importer. As the foodie and craft cocktail movement found its way to Atlanta, one of the restaurants that epitomized this trend starting in 2010 was named Empire State South, a nod to New York. Thanks to tax credit changes in Georgia state law in 2008, Atlanta has become a center of movie production, but its nickname "Y'allywood" harks back to its big brother out west. And like so many cities, Atlanta has worked to grow and hype its startup and tech community, seeking to become the undisputed "Silicon Valley of the South."
Over the past few months, something in the city has changed. The Braves played their final game in Turner Field, awaiting the opening of SunTrust Park, a controversial taxpayer-subsidized boondoggle that ultimately cost its architect, Cobb County Commissioner Tim Lee, his job in a July special election. The Falcons' trip to the Super Bowl and move next season to its new taxpayer-subsidized $1.5 billion home has focused attention not only on their on-field success, but also on some of the poverty and blight in nearby neighborhoods. And in the final year of his administration, Atlanta Mayor Kasim Reed, famous for blocking reporters or just about anyone that disagrees with him on Twitter, has come under increased scrutiny for some of the improprieties surrounding City Hall. Could a city famous for its boosterism finally be ready to acknowledge some of its shortcomings? That would be yet one more marker of Atlanta's arrival in adulthood.
The Globe and Mail's Eric Andrew-Gee explains Hollywood's fascination with Boston as a setting in terms of an interest in the idea of an American city bound by tradition.
Boston Magazine has suggested that generous tax credits lure studios to Massachusetts. But Boston movies are not just set in Boston; they’re about Boston, and what it does to you: the wages of loyalty, the tug of roots, the comforts and claustrophobia of home. The movies do not always romanticize this world. But even the harshest depictions of the city evince a grudging fondness for its grit and closeness.
Those qualities are twin manifestations of the nostalgia that’s hard not to see as central to the city’s cinematic appeal. It’s a nostalgia that can be wholesome and sinister in equal measure, pining for a time of closer civic bonds and richer local culture even as it fondly remembers a whiter, manlier, and more violent past.
It’s no coincidence that movie Boston is almost perfectly synonymous with Irish Catholic Boston; there’s something almost European and Old World about the communitarian ethos at the heart of its worldview. The opening shot of Gone Baby Gone, starring Casey Affleck as a working-class private detective trying to solve a kidnapping, speaks to this with disarming candour. As the camera pans over an American flag painted on the side of a water tower, Affleck’s voice propounds a most un-American credo: “I always believed it was things you don’t choose that makes you who you are,” he says. “Your city, your neighbourhood, your family.”
Sure enough, the characters of the Boston film boom are defined above all by their sense of place. Their parochialism is almost medieval: the Seans and Patricks of these stories never move away from home, speak with thick regional twangs, are forever draped in city sports regalia, and enact folk traditions seen as quaint by the rest of the country, like playing hockey and going to mass. For a North American culture homogenized by cable TV, shopping malls, chain stores, and increasingly by the sleek, antiseptic design of websites like Facebook, a splash of local colour is refreshing.
Patriots Day hints at the best of this Boston. It shows a city where the gentle strictures of tradition give a pattern to daily life, narrowing the infinite field of choice thrown up by 21st-century consumer culture. In an early scene, before the bombing, a Boston native tells his out-of-towner wife that there are three things you can do on Patriots Day: run in the marathon, watch the marathon, or take in a “Red Sawks” game (as he insists she pronounce it). She is charmed, and so are we: here is life made simple by adherence to the tried and true.
Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw reflects on his experience of being a flâneur, and the problems of said.
Introduced to the concept by a friend, there was a time when I was a most dedicated flaneur. Then I drifted away a little, although I introduced a remarkable number of people to the concept.
I think one of the reasons for my decline in flaneuring is that I started walking for exercise. This may be healthy, but it tends to defeats the point, the discoveries that can come from random idling.
I find that when walking for exercise I have in mind distance and time, two things in direct conflict with the art of flânerie. What's worse, I tend to get very bored and thus stop walking! Even the desire to achieve a minimum number of paces (10,000 per day appears to have become an almost universal target) provides insufficient incentive.
The irony, of course, is that I actually walked more as a flaneur than as an exerciser because I was simply more interested, was inclined to keep moving.
At MacLean's, Armine Yalznizyan argues that Toronto deserves much more attention from Canadians at large for its positive economic contributions, and its heft.
It’s the city that every Canadian loves to hate, yet Canada wouldn’t be Canada without Toronto. No, this isn’t troll bait. People should care what happens to Toronto. Here’s why.
On Monday Statistics Canada put out a new data series about “local” economies, showing how much our cities contribute to the national economy. The census metropolitan area* of Toronto pumped out $330 billion in 2013, the last year for which StatsCan conducted this exercise. That’s virtually equivalent to the GDP of the entire province of Alberta GDP ($331 billion) and within spitting distance of Canada’s second-largest province, Quebec ($337 billion).
Since the 2008 global economic crisis, much has been made of how Alberta’s rapid rise created a new economic magnetic pole in Canada. But as vital as resource growth was to Canada’s recovery, Toronto’s relative economic importance was only slightly diminished between 2009 and 2013 as Alberta boomed; Toronto’s share of national GDP declined from 19.2 per cent to 18.6 per cent. But of course since 2013 the story of Alberta’s economic miracle was interrupted—and possibly ended—as the price of oil collapsed in 2014 and again further in 2015. Meanwhile, since 2013, growth in numerous and diverse sectors that are disproportionately concentrated in Toronto (construction, real estate, finance, professional and technical services, IT and even some manufacturing) mean that Toronto’s economy has likely continued to generate roughly one-fifth of Canada’s GDP. Much as it has since at least 2001, according to analysis by Statistics Canada.
This shouldn’t really be a surprise when one considers the second important fact about Toronto that nobody ever talks about: The Toronto census metropolitan region is North America’s fourth-largest city, and Canada’s largest city, home to 20.4 per cent of all Canadians. According to World Bank statistics, Toronto is bucking an international trend, as a higher concentration of Canadian residents have steadily chosen to live in the city over time, the opposite of what is happening in all G7 nations.