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  • The Dragon's Gaze links to a paper suggesting exoplanet transits could start a galactic communications network.

  • The Everyday Sociology Blog looks at the connections between eating and identity.

  • The Frailest Thing's Michael Sacasas looks at the need for a critical study of the relationship between technology and democracy.

  • Language Hat notes how nationalism split Hindustani into separate Hindi and Urdu languages.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money reflects on the grim outlook in Somalia after the terrible recent Mogadishu bombing.

  • Marginal Revolution's Tyler Cowen thinks Trump's decertification of the Iran deal is a bad idea.

  • The Map Room Blog links to an article imagining a counter-mapping of the Amazon by indigenous peoples.

  • Neuroskeptic considers the possibility of Parkinson's being a prion disease, somewhat like mad cow disease.

  • The NYR Daily notes that a Brexit driven by a perceived need to take back control will not meet that need, at all.

  • Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw looks at the problem Sydney faces as it booms.

  • The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer looks at the extent to which an independent Catalonia would be ravaged economically by a non-negotiated secession.

  • Peter Watts tells the sad story of an encounter between Toronto police and a homeless man he knows.

  • Window on Eurasia notes a Sakhalin bridge, like a Crimea bridge, may not come off because of Russian weakness.

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  • Bad Astronomer Phil Plait looks at the discovery of rings around Kuiper belt dwarf planet Haumea, as does the Planetary Society Blog's Jason Davis.

  • The Big Picture, from the Boston Globe, shares photos of the devastation of Puerto Rico by Maria.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money notes the strong support of many--most?--on the American right for apartheid.

  • The LRB Blog shares an article by Mike Davis looking at the vulnerability of California, especially Napa, to wildfires.

  • The Map Room Blog links to a beautiful detailed map of the French railway network.

  • The NYR Daily reports from Catalonia on the edge of a meltdown.

  • North's Justin Petrone writes about going hunting for mushroooms in Estonia.

  • Starts With A Bang's Ethan Siegel shares five especially noteworthy photos provided by NASA. (What, no Pale Blue Dot?)

  • Window on Eurasia suggests Russians in Tatarstan, unlike other groups, are unique in not wanting to learn Tatar.

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Bad Astronomer Phil Plait talks about the discovery that the early Moon had a notable atmosphere. http://www.syfy.com/syfywire/air-de-lune

The Big Picture, from the Boston Globe, shares terrifying pictures from the California wildfires. https://www.bostonglobe.com/news/bigpicture/2017/10/10/raging-wildfires-california/GtkTUeIILcZeqp5jlsLTMI/story.html

The Broadside Blog's Caitlin Kelly talks about how writers need editing, and editors. https://broadsideblog.wordpress.com/2017/10/14/why-editors-matter-more-than-ever/

D-Brief notes that forming coal beds sucked so much carbon dioxide out of the air that it triggered an ice age.
http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2017/10/10/coal-earth-ice/

Dangerous Minds looks at Michael's Thing, a vintage guide to gay New York dating from the 1970s. http://dangerousminds.net/comments/michaels_thing_new_york_citys_once_essential_queer_city_guide

Cody Delistraty looks at a new Paris exhibition of the works of Paul Gauguin that tries to deal with his moral sketchiness, inspiration of much his work. https://delistraty.com/2017/10/09/paul-gauguins-insurmountable-immorality/

Hornet Stories notes that same same-sex-attracted guys opt to be called not gay but androphiles. (Less baggage, they say.) https://hornetapp.com/stories/men-who-love-men-androphile/

Language Hat notes a claim that the Spanish of Christopher Columbus was marked by Catalan. http://languagehat.com/columbuss-catalan/

Language Log notes that the languages of southern China like Cantonese are actually fully-fledged languages. http://languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/nll/?p=34933

Lawyers, Guns and Money notes an argument that Chinese companies do not abide by the terms of tech transfer agreements.
http://www.lawyersgunsmoneyblog.com/2017/10/tech-transfer

The LRB Blog notes an old Mike Davis article noting how California, at a time of climate change, risks catastrophic wildfires. https://www.lrb.co.uk/blog/2017/10/10/the-editors/california-burning/

The Map Room Blog is unimpressed by the new book, A History of Canada in Ten Maps. (It needs more maps. Seriously.) https://buff.ly/2gcdLKG

The NYR Daily takes another look at the nature of consciousness.
http://www.nybooks.com/daily/2017/10/09/consciousness-an-object-lesson/

The Planetary Society Blog shares a scientist's story about how he stitched together the last mosaic photo of Saturn by Cassini. http://www.planetary.org/blogs/guest-blogs/2017/cassinis-last-dance-with-saturn-farewell-mosaic.html

The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer notes that an unnegotiated secession of Catalonia from Spain would be a catastrophe for the new country. http://noelmaurer.typepad.com/aab/2017/10/la-econom%C3%ADa-de-la-secesi%C3%B3n-en-la-madre-patria.html

Roads and Kingdoms considers what is next for Kurdistan after its independence referendum. http://roadsandkingdoms.com/2017/whats-next-for-kurdistan/

Science Sushi considers the sketchy science of studying cetacean sex. http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/science-sushi/2017/10/10/dolphin-penis-vagina-simulated-marine-mammal-sex/

Starts With A Bang's Ethan Siegel notes that exceptionally strong evidence that we do, in fact, exist in a real multiverse. https://www.forbes.com/sites/startswithabang/2017/10/12/the-multiverse-is-inevitable-and-were-living-in-it/

Strange Maps looks at rates of reported corruption across Latin America, finding that Mexico fares badly. http://bigthink.com/strange-maps/half-of-all-mexicans-paid-a-bribe-in-the-previous-12-months

Window on Eurasia notes new inflows of migrants to Russia include fewer Europeans and many more Central Asians. http://windowoneurasia2.blogspot.ca/2017/10/gastarbeiters-in-russia-from-central.html
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  • Bad Astronomy's Phil Plait notes that the most plausible explanation for Tabitha's Star, KIC 8462852, exists in partial eclipses of the star by dust clouds.

  • D-Brief notes that the giant stick insects of Lord Howe Island did survive in their forced diaspora.

  • The Dragon's Gaze takes a look at Kelt-9b, a planet so close to its star that it is literally melting away.

  • Language Hat looks at a website set up by inhabitants of the Faroe Islands to translate Faroese.

  • The LRB Blog shares some of the past appearances of Nobel-winning author Kazuo Ishiguro in the pages of the LRB.

  • Neal Ascherson at the NYR Daily looks at the mechanism of the referendum, in Scotland and Catalonia and elsewhere.

  • The Planetary Society Blog looks at the import of Mike Pence's promise to send Americans to the Moon again.

  • Starts With A Bang's Ethan Siegel looks at how the cosmic phenomenon of inflation explains the entire modern universe.

  • Window on Eurasia suggests Chechnya's Ramzan Kadyrov is trying to establish himself as a Russian political figure.

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  • There will be huge changes at Bloor and Dufferin, including one proposed tower a few dozen stories high. blogTO reports.

  • The St. Regis, the former Trump Tower, is set to offer very high-end luxury condos in the Financial District. The Toronto Star reports.

  • In the aftermath of a string of pedestrian deaths, Shawn Micallef notes the design failures of Toronto leading to loss of life.

  • Spacing talks about what the North Market of Toronto can learn from the historic El Born of Barcelona.

  • blogTO notes that an abortive scandal over the placement of a Little Free Library came to nothing in the end.

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  • Centauri Dreams considers the idea of dispatching a fleet of sail-equipped probes to map the asteroid belt.

  • Crux considers the importance of the invention of zero for mathematics.

  • D-Brief notes that Scotland's oldest snow patch is set to melt imminently.

  • The Dragon's Gaze links to a paper looking at the stability of multiplanetary systems in star clusters.

  • Imageo notes the modest recovery of icecaps in the Arctic this summer.

  • Language Log notes the importance of Kazakhstan's shift to using the Latin script for the Kazakh language.

  • The LRB Blog reports on a writer's visit to Helsinki.

  • The Map Room Blog notes a giant relief map of Guatemala, built to reinforce claims to what is now Belize.

  • The NYR Daily considers the continued salience of race in the fragile liberal-democratic world, in America and Europe.

  • The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer wonders if the heavy-handed Spanish government is trying to trigger Catalonian independence.

  • Roads and Kingdoms considers the palm wine of Senegal, and its vendors.

  • Understanding Society considers the Holocaust, as an experience sociological and otherwise.

  • The Volokh Conspiracy makes a libertarian case for open borders.

  • Whatever's John Scalzi celebrates his meeting mutual fan Alison Moyet.

  • Window on Eurasia notes how Belarus' cautious Belarusianization is met by Russia's pro-Soviet nostalgia.

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  • At Antipope, Charlie Stross considers the ways in which Big Data could enable an updated version of 1984.

  • Bad Astronomer Phil Plait looks at all the ways in which this photo of galaxy NGC 5559 is cool, with a supernova and more.

  • The Broadside Blog's Caitlin Kelly shares a week of her life as a professional writer.

  • Crooked Timber looks at the potentially dominant role of racism as a political marker in the US.

  • Far Outliers notes that the Confederacy's military options circa 1864 were grim and limited.

  • Language Log shares an example of a Starbucks coffee cup with biscriptal writing from Shenyang.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money notes that the Rohingya are being subjected to genocide. What next?

  • Marginal Revolution notes the introduction of a new chocolate, ruby chocolate".

  • Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw has it with ideological divisions of left and right.

  • The Power and the Money's Noel Maurer looks at the remarkably intemperate Spanish court decision that kicked off modern separatism in Catalonia.

  • Charley Ross looks at the sad story of missing teenager Brittanee Drexel.

  • Starts With A Bang's Ethan Siegel notes that now is an excellent time to start highlighting the politics of climate change.

  • Towleroad mourns New York City theatre star Michael Friedman.

  • Window on Eurasia notes the ways in which Russia is, and is not, likely to use the military.

  • Arnold Zwicky shares a map of the regional languages of France.

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  • Bad Astronomy's Phil Plait notes how the media made a simulation of a third planet at Gliese 832 a discovery of a new Earth-like world.

  • The Broadside Blog's Caitlin Kelly calls on a consideration of why schoolchildren are labelled troublemakers.

  • The Dragon's Gaze notes that 51 Eridani b has been discovered to be a cloudy world, and how.

  • Far Outliers notes how the decline of Temasek (the future Singapore) was followed by the rise of Melaka.

  • Hornet Stories tells of an Orthodox Christian priest in Australia, who, at the funeral of a lesbian, called for gays to be shot.

  • Joe. My. God. notes that Catalonia's parliament approved a referendum on secession.

  • The LRB Blog considers the import of Monte Testaccio, a man-made hill of rubble and waste dating from Roman times.

  • The NYR Daily considers the engaging and engaged pop art of Grayson Perry.

  • Roads and Kingdoms tells of a lazy afternoon spent drinking New Zealand beer in a Moscow pub.

  • Towleroad notes an upcoming revealing documentary about Grace Jones.

  • Window on Eurasia notes how, in the Donbas wars, mercenaries are becoming a major, potentially destabilizing force.

  • Yorkshire Ranter Alex Harrowell looks at the conflict between quantitative data and qualitative stories in politics.

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  • Scott Wheeler writes about past eminences of Toronto, people like Conn Smythe and Raymond Massey.
  • Joanna Slater writes in The Globe and Mail about the symbolism of Confederate--and other--statuary in Richmond, former capital of the South.

  • Reuters reports on a Vietnamese businessman abducted by his country from the streets of Berlin. Germany is unhappy.

  • Jeremiah Ross argues at VICE that very high levels of tourism in New York City are displacing native-born residents.

  • Looking to protests most recently in Barcelona, Elle Hunt in The Guardian looks at ways to make mass tourism more affordable for destinations.

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  • Centauri Dreams considers Juno's photos of Jupiter's poles.

  • The Dragon's Gaze notes the discovery of another star that behaves much like mysterious Tabby's Star.

  • Far Outliers reports on the good reputation of the Chinese forces at Shanghai in 1937.

  • Joe. My. God. notes a Christian site that claims gay sex is not sex.

  • Language Hat reports on the problems of translating Elena Ferrante.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money and Noel Maurer are unimpressed by Libertarian candidate Gary Johnson.

  • The New APPS Blog writes against faculty lock-outs.

  • Personal Reflections' Jim Belshaw describes the Parers, a Catalan-Australian family.

  • Window on Eurasia notes Ukraine's recognition of the 500th anniversary of the Protestant Reformation, reports on how Russians resent Ukrainian refugees, and suggests the Russian economic crisis is finally hitting Moscow and St. Petersburg.

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  • ABC reports on the Sudanese-Australian basketball players who are transforming the game in Australia.

  • Bloomberg reports on the potentially transformative scope of China's New Silk Road project.

  • Bloomberg View likes the new Star Trek movie's shift beyond speciesism.

  • CBC reports on the strength of pro-Trump support among non-voting Amish in Pennsylvania, and looks at a VIA Rail proposal to set up a commuter run in Halifax.

  • Gizmodo reports on Florida's disastrous coastal algal infestations.

  • The Globe and Mail notes a proposal for Ontario-Michigan cooperation and recounts the story of the construction of the Rideau Canal.

  • The Guardian reports on Catalonia's swift progress towards a declaration of independence.

  • MacLean's describes Manitoba's falling crime rate.

  • Open Democracy wonders about Italy's Five Star Movement and looks at the newest African-American hashtag movements.

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  • Centauri Dreams looks at odd binary AR Scorpii.

  • Crooked Timber examines connections between demographic change and religiosity in the United States.

  • A Fistful of Euros reports on the IMF response to the Eurozone bailouts.

  • Joe. My. God. notes the outrage of families of survivors of American military dead at Trump's treatment of the Khan family.

  • The LRB Blog calls for England to secede.

  • Out There interviews Tabitha Boyajian about KIC 8462852.

  • The Planetary Society Blog features Marc Rayman's explanation of Dawn's remaining at Ceres.

  • Peter Rukavina notes a book exploring the lost Quaker settlement of New London, on the north shore of Prince Edward Island.

  • Strange Maps looks at the cartographic imprint of Spain on the streets of Barcelona.

  • Torontoist notes that tickets for the Toronto Islands ferry can now be bought from smartphone apps.

  • Window on Eurasia suggests Russia is running out of money to sustain its economy, looks at the Russian propensity of emigration, and notes that rising unemployment is contributing to internal migration.

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  • Bloomberg notes the advance of Catalonian separatism, looks at the economic catastrophes hitting Mozambique, and looks at how Africa is getting more people online by devising apps for non-smartphones.

  • Bloomberg View examines at length the implications of Donald Trump's not quite criminal call to have Russia hack more E-mails.

  • The CBC notes young British Leave voters defending their choices and observes the implications of the shutdown of the Manitoba port of Churchill.

  • The Inter Press Service notes that the Rio Olympics will be a mess.

  • MacLean's notes the dominance of the Canadian economy by the housing bubble.

  • The National Post reports on a team of Turkish commandos sent to kill the president found hiding in a cave.

  • Open Democracy looks at the negative results of the European Union's incoherent policies in Azerbaijan.

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  • The Dragon's Gaze links to a paper considering rates of water loss in a moist greenhouse world's atmosphere.

  • The Dragon's Tales notes that leftists in Catalonia blocked separatists from forming the government.

  • Far Outliers notes Persian cultural influence in the South Caucasus, among Christian and Muslim cultures alike.

  • Joe. My. God. notes that the Catholic cardinal of the Dominican Republic insulted the gay American ambassador in a manner combining homophobia with misogyny.

  • Language Log notes the growing multilingualism of Hong Kong, beyond Chinese languages.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money responds to a feminist criticism of Jessica Jones, and notes it is entirely possible to respond to a feminist criticism without sending death or rape threats.

  • Towleroad notes the publication, by the Russian edition of Maxim, of a list of gay respected by the magazine.

  • Transit Toronto notes that you only need proof of payment to board streetcars by any door.

  • Window on Eurasia notes a move in Russia to undermine that country's ethnofederalism, to the demerit of minority peoples like the Tatars.

  • Yorkshire Ranter Alex Harrowell notes how the old habit of the Enlightenment to organize museums by curiosities does not work if you use artifacts from indigenous peoples in the mix.

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  • blogTO considers if the Union-Pearson Express might work as a rapid transit line.

  • The Dragon's Gaze notes that Earth-like worlds which rapidly lose most of their water can extend their habitable lifetimes.

  • The Everyday Sociology Blog talks about the sociological lessons of party crashers.

  • Geocurrents notes the complexities of Valencian identity and its relationship to Catalonia.

  • Joe. My. God. notes the introduction of a civil unions bill into the Italian parliament.

  • Language Hat links to a contemporary survey of spoken Irish in the Aran Islands.

  • Language Log looks at the Hakka and their distinctive Chinese language.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money notes the impacts of structural racism on the lives of people living in unincorporated communities in California.

  • Marginal Revolution notes some young Argentines are throwing wedding parties without an actual married couple.

  • Steve Munro looks at waterfront transit plans.

  • The Planetary Society Blog's Emily Lakdawalla notes a 3-d model of Charon.
  • The Russian Demographics Blog shows the 1897 Russian Imperial census' data on speakers of the Ukrainian language.

  • Window on Eurasia notes the extension of the Chinese transport net to the Russian Far East, argues Ukrainians are losing interest in Russia, and notes potential Russian border issues with the Baltic States.

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  • blogTO reports on five of the smallest libraries in Toronto. Two of them are near me.

  • James Bow notes the odd recent Facebook slowdowns.

  • The Broadside Blog's Caitlin Kelly notes there is no such thing as a low-skilled job.

  • The Dragon's Gaze notes three recently-discovered hot Jupiters.

  • The Dragon's Tales notes geological evidence of ancient atmospheric oxygen in rocks 3.2 billion years ago and reports on the discovery of water ice on Pluto.

  • Geocurrents notes the lack of support for Catalonian separatism in Occitan-speaking Val d'Aran.

  • Joe. My. God. notes that the kissing marine couple has married.

  • Language Log celebrated Korea's Hangul Day yesterday.

  • Lawyers, Guns and Money notes toxic masculinity in team sports.

  • The Planetary Society Blog considers the role of telerobotics in space exploration.

  • Towleroad notes the definitive arrival of marriage equality in Ireland.

  • Window on Eurasia suggests Russia's Syria gambit is failing, with implications for tensions among Russia's Muslims, and notes Crimean Tatar institutions' issues with the Russian state.

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  • blogTO looks at atypically-named TTC subway stations, the ones named not after streets.

  • Centauri Dreams examines the protoplanetary disk of AU Microscopii.

  • The Dragon's Tales looks at China's nuclear submarine issues.

  • The Everyday Sociology Blog examines the intersections between game theory and water shortages.

  • Far Outliers notes the travails of Buddhism in Buryatia and the decline of Russia's Old Believers.

  • Geocurrents looks at rural-urban--potentially ethnic--divides in Catalonia.

  • Savage Minds examines controversies over tantra in contemporary Tibetan Buddhism.

  • Torontoist notes that the TCHC is only now investing in energy-saving repairs.

  • Window on Eurasia suggests contemporary Syria could have been Ukraine had Yanukovich been stronger, notes Belarusian opposition to a Russian military base, and notes discontent among Russia's largely Sunni Muslims with the alliance with Iran and Syria.

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Open Democracy's Daniel Coyne makes the compelling argument that the ability of the United Kingdom, unlike Spain, to accept the possibility of separatism is a strength.

If we return our focus to Catalonia, where on Sunday the pro-independence parties won a majority of seats in parliament. The exact levels of support for Catalan independence vary according to who you ask, with both sides in the debate naturally exaggerating their own support base. It is beyond doubt, however, that at least a sizeable minority of Catalan voters want full independence from Spain.

The Spanish government has of course secured its own democratic mandate to govern, having been chosen for office by the entire Spanish electorate. It also has its own perfectly sensible reasons for wanting Catalonia to remain part of Spain. Aside from patriotic notions of Spanish unity, it benefits Spain economically to have the relatively wealthy and productive Catalonia as part of the family.

Yet the national government in Madrid isn’t the sole legislative power in Spain, a highly de-centralised country divided into 17 autonomous communities, each with its own legislature.

Catalan elections consistently garner a lot of support for the independence cause. In refusing to allow an independence referendum to be held, the Spanish government chooses to utilise its own mandate as a democratically-elected body to overrule a subordinate yet equally legitimate body. A body that is simply seeking to serve the interests of the people that voted for it.
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Maria Tadeo's Bloomberg article "Catalonia Isn't Really About to Break Away From Spain, Is It?" looks at the trajectory of Catalonian politics.

is Catalonia really about to break away from Spain?

Probably not, no. But regional President Artur Mas will likely get enough support to begin the process of secession and push for more powers. His mainstream pro-independence alliance Junts pel Si is projected to fall just short of a majority, and a smaller separatist group, the CUP, will probably get the movement over the 68-seat threshold.

While this will most likely be enough for the separatists to push on with their fight, without a majority of votes they will struggle to present this as a clear democratic mandate. Polls show votes for independence coming in below the 50 percent threshold.

What is Junts pel Si?

An alliance of separatist groups. Mas’s party, Convergencia, agreed to join forces with its traditional separatist rival Esquerra Republicana for this election after their attempts at holding a non-binding referendum were blocked last year.

They’ve been joined by figures from across Catalan society such as Bayern Munich soccer coach Pep Guardiola. The aim is to set aside differences on economic and social issues to bring the separatist vote together under one banner and send a clear signal to officials in Madrid.

Mas and Esquerra leader Oriol Junqueras have drawn up a road map that involves setting up a tax agency, a central bank, an army and securing access to the euro before declaring independence in 18 months’ time if they can secure a majority of 68 seats in the 135 strong regional assembly.


Mark Gilbert's "Scotland Proved You Can't Scare Catalonia Away From Independence" emphasizes the extent to which Spain has to make a positive case for itself.

Rajoy said this week that the pro-independence politicians have no concrete plans as to how they'd run a government, and that "Catalans aren’t being told the real consequences of independence." Rajoy even suggested that Catalans would lose their EU citizenship. The Spanish central bank, meanwhile, insisted that cut loose from the mothership, the region would be kicked out of the European Union, barred from using the euro and would leave its banks without the support of the European Central Bank. And Miguel Cardenal, the Spanish minister for sports, has threatened to kick Catalonian soccer team Barcelona out of the national league.

Catalonia produces about 18 percent of Spain's gross domestic product, so the region wouldn't exactly be a pauper. Nevertheless, investors have reacted to the prospect of an escalating fight over independence by driving up the yield premium they demand for lending to the region by buying its bonds rather than those of the central government; they now charge Catalonia 3.25 percent for five-year money, which is about 2.3 percentage points more than the government pays. That's almost double what the surcharge was six months ago

The U.K.'s eventual change of tactics in persuading Scotland to remain part of the union should provide Spain with a better guide as to how to hang on to Catalonia. Devolution -- the transfer of tax and spending powers to the regions -- has softened (though not silenced) Scottish calls for independence, and seems to have averted a Welsh move down the secessionist path. Andreu Mas-Colell, a former Harvard University economics professor who is the Spanish region's finance chief, said a year ago that he was open to the idea. "The more attractive is the offer on the table, the more likely that the vote will end up developing as in Britain," he said in October.
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Open Democracy's Fernando Betancor writes about different scenarios for Catalonian independence following upcoming regional elections. He makes a compelling case that things could get very bad indeed.

Nothing that has come before has mattered; it has been all talk. Up until and including the September 27, every action of every politician and of the Catalan government will be legal; no one is going to go off-script and give Madrid an excuse to intervene. But as the Romans used to say: “res, non verba” or “act, don’t talk”. Now everyone will have to declare themselves in positive action. As soon as the government is formed, it will execute what it perceives to be its electoral mandate: attain independence for Catalonia. It is likely to proceed in the following manner:

1. The Catalan government will formally request secession negotiations with the Spanish government and the Catalan representatives of this list in the national legislature will attempt to submit a bill to that affect;

2. Both efforts will be immediately and conclusively rebuffed;

3. The Catalan government will then draft (or has already drafted) a unilateral declaration of independence and will submit it to the regional legislature for a vote. If the Catalan Parlament can muster a quorum, they will undoubtedly hold an immediate vote on the measure, which will probably be passed by the same majority, or slightly greater, that the pro-independence parties enjoy in the chamber.

At this point, Mariano Rajoy will have the legal justification to intervene. The intervention include many actions, but at a minimum he will use his constitutional authority from Article 154 to declare a state of exception in Catalonia, suspend the civil institutions and attempt to reassert the national authority. And this is when the feces begin to strike the ventilation unit.

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